A Stolen Gen 2: Babies for the Deserving

A STOLEN GENERATION IN THE MAKING

Part 2

Dr. Christine A. Cole ©

 Babies for the Deserving and Welfare Savings

It is quite apparent that a propaganda campaign to promote the forcible removal of children for the purpose of adoption is in full flight in NSW. There are two reasons for this – 1. The government is committed to bringing back forced removals to save the state money and 2. Because the powerful pro-adoption lobby headed by Deborra-Lee Furness is demanding it.  Both Furness and the Australian government believe there is a need to de-stigmatise adoption because an anti-adoption culture exists in Australia and is a barrier to making more babies available for adoption.[1] The pretext for the pro adoption campaign is child safety domestically and saving orphans internationally.  Hence the current media campaign to normalise Forced Adoption is a continuation of a strategy previously used that effectively convinced the Australian public that child removal was in the child’s “best interests”.  In the 1960s adoption was sold as an institution that saved “unwanted babies”.[2]  When intercountry adoption took off it was promoted as “saving orphans”;[3] the latest is “saving abused children”.[4] Who can argue against such altruistic objectives?  In fact that is the whole point, anyone questioning adoption now is accused of protecting child abusers and if they suggest implementing strategies to keep fragile families intact, of child abuse.[5]

Jeremy Sammut succinctly states the neo-liberal/anti-welfare perspective of the right wing think tank for which he writes and which is aligned with Prime Minister Abbott’s ideology[6]:

The politically incorrect reality is the introduction of the single mother’s pension by the [Federal] Whitlam Government in 1973 has led to the very social problems that forced adoption [implemented at a State level] was intended to prevent: the rise of a dependent class of single mothers reliant on public assistance and unable to properly care for children outside of a traditional, financially self-supporting family.[7]

Coincidentally adoptive parents blamed the “adoption crisis” or rather, the lack of babies for them to adopt, on Prime Minister Whitlam’s introduction of the Supporting Parents Benefit.[8]

Sammut’s statement underlines the fact that Forced Adoption was/is a policy of the Commonwealth Government imposed at a State level as a mechanism of social control. In operation the past and present policy of Forced Adoption transfers children from a group designated “unfit” to one deemed superior “a traditional, financially self-supporting family” with the intention of saving the State the financial expense of keeping parents who are “not effective”[9] and their  families intact.

Jeremy Sammut’s promotion of Forced Adoption to save the state money is supported by Louise Voigt, CEO of Barnardos.[10]  Voigt, whose agency financially benefits from NSW contracting out to it  the administration of foster care and adoption, states: “My agency has been involved in adoption for many years now and we are absolutely delighted that at long last, we’ve got a minister committed to the same process”.[11]

It seems that we have learnt nothing from the past.

 

Forced Adoption Policy and Legislation In Practice

Medical staff and other mandated reporters can make a complaint to the NSW Department of Family & Community Services if he or she identifies a parent who they believe is unable to parent their child/children because of poverty; homelessness; youth; domestic violence; intellectual disability and  mental health problems which includes drug dependence.[12]  This is also the case in other states.[13] A pregnant woman, who someone regards may be at risk of causing emotional damage to her unborn infant sometime in the future will have a secret code placed on her medical files which informs medical staff that she is to be ‘monitored’ throughout her pregnancy. If she misses antenatal visits and/or appears depressed, or does not conform to medical staff’s expectations of her as a potential mother, the Department is alerted and a social worker/child protection officer will appear at the birth and forcibly remove her newborn.[14] The mother is not informed that her infant is being targeted for removal. If the mother manages to leave the hospital with her newborn the monitoring is continued. Hence some young women, who become aware that they are at risk, avoid seeking help for prenatal, postnatal, and parent-child problems if they are drug dependent – that includes tobacco and alcohol (or any other of the nominated risks) for fear they will lose their child.[15]  Even if a mother does not present earlier enough for her antenatal checks her unborn baby can be deemed ‘at risk’ and later removed.[16]  This then becomes a deterrent for mothers to present at all. This surveillance of women’s bodies and interference in their family life is transformed in policy speak by the NSW Liberal government as giving: “The state’s most vulnerable children the best chance of a better future, by increasing early intervention services, streamlining adoption and providing more support to new mothers”.[17]  This however violates the state’s obligation  “to ensure that only children who need to be removed from parental care, or who can otherwise benefit from placement, are in out-of-home care”.[18] The NSW government makes some sweeping and prejudicial assumptions.  It presumes parents, who smoke cannabis recreationally;[19] tobacco smokers; the homeless; victims of domestic violence and the poor, are all child abusers. It is intolerant and prejudicial to condemn someone and remove their infant on a presumption which in reality is a cover for punishing behaviour the State deems deviant.

Mandatory reporting by police of domestic violence means that many mothers no longer report violence as to do so places them at risk of having their children removed and hence they are doubly abused.[20] Consequently some have networked amongst other victims and set up their own safe houses in order to keep their children.[21]  In the US research indicated that battered women stayed in abusive relationships for fear if they reported they would have their children taken. Richard Wexler, a children rights campaigner, stated that authorities in their zeal to protect children further victimise them.  “Whatever trauma the child already has endured by witnessing domestic violence it is compounded by his or her removal from the mother”.[22] Advocates for women’s rights stated that the state in its prosecutorial zeal: “is punishing victims rather than batterers, and traumatising kids rather than rescuing them”.[23]

Homeless or women with substandard accommodation will have their baby removed at birth.  One such mother, after having her toddler taken, turned her life around, found accommodation, but when she gave birth to a second child it was immediately removed on the grounds that her first had been taken. Removal of the first child is prima facie evidence empowering protection workers to remove a second irrespective of the change in a woman’s circumstances –  as was done in the above instance.  This woman had garnered a number of support service advocates, but child protection workers intent on taking her baby refused to engage with them.[24] The onus was on the woman to prove herself ‘fit’ in order to reclaim her children, not on the protection workers to prove their case.[25]   Such are the unintended and dangerous consequences of very poor social policy not fully thought through.[26]

NSW Premier Barry O’Farrell reframes this litany of human rights abuses as: “Our changes will put vulnerable children first, while also giving troubled mothers the help they need to turn their lives around”.[27]  The Premier was alerted to the life time of suffering and mental health problems caused to women who had their babies forcibly removed when he issued his apology, on behalf of the NSW government and its people, for Forced Adoption in 2012. Regrettably he is now inflicting this same pain on another generation of mother and babies. The Premier has learnt nothing from the mistakes of his predecessors. They may have been able to plead ignorance, Mr. O’Farrell cannot.

A more nuanced public policy response may be one that invests in more housing for those on low incomes and/or improved rent assistance. Another more pro family measure may be to put back funding into refuges for battered women, since it is they who are expected to find new accommodation, not their abusers.  In 2011-2012 in Queensland 15% of families seeking homelessness services did so because of domestic violence and 19%  because of financial difficulties[28] it would be shocking if these  families had their children removed for seeking assistance  Unfortunately, this is what has happened to families in SA and NSW.[29]  Since it is acknowledged that there is a correlation between social disadvantage and neglect then ensuring unemployment benefits and sole parent benefits allow families to live above the poverty line may do far more to protect children than removing them and placing them with strangers.

Unmarried Aboriginal and white mothers who experienced past Forced Adoption have spoken out about their lifelong mental and physical health problems caused by the state’s violence as did their stolen children. The intense suffering of Aboriginal parents and their stolen children was brought to prominent public attention in 1997 with the release of the Bringing Them Home Report [30] –  as was that of the white and Indigenous mothers who had their babies stolen for the adoption market:  Releasing the Past:  Inquiry into Past Forced Adoptions (2000).  Most recently the enormous pain and damage inflicted on white families torn apart by having their newborns stolen for adoption was again exposed by the Community Affairs References Committee Inquiry that released the historical:  The Commonwealth’s Contribution to Former Forced Adoption Policies and Practices (2012). All of which added to evidence gathered in other Inquiries.[31]

No longer can the government plead ignorance. It is patently aware of the severe mental health damage caused to children and their parent’s when they are needlessly and opportunistically separated.[32]  The damage done to families torn apart by past forced removal policies has been well researched.[33] I therefore accuse the NSW and Australian Governments of being in breach of their promise that Forced Adoption would never ever occur again. I further accuse them of being in breach of International treaties the Australia Government signed on behalf of the nation proclaiming it would protect the rights of children; victims of domestic violence and individuals who suffer mental health problems which includes drug dependency.  The NSW and the Australian Governments have failed to ensure that these rights are protected as well as violating the right of the most vulnerable to be free of unnecessary interference in their family life and the right of their children  to grow up in their own families knowing their kin, culture and customs. Loss of identity is acknowledged as a major trauma for both white and Indigenous stolen children irrespective of the quality of the parenting.[34]


[1] Connolly, E  Furness attacks adoption culture  The Daily Telegraph Aug 5th, 2007; Horton, S. Furness’s date with Attorney-General The Sun Herald, the Diary S2 Feb 24, 2008; Connolly, E,  A present for all the children The Sunday Telegraph Dec 23, 2007, p. 3; Connolly, E ‘Big Day for adoption campaign The Sunday Telegraph April, 27, 2008, p. 36; Connolly, E.  Jolie’s doctor crusades Courier Mail April 6, 2008 http://www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0,23739,23492936-5012980,00.html;

Connolly E, Actress’s mission to overhaul the rules : ‘Adoption fight goes to Rudd’, The Sunday Telegraph, Nov 11, 2007, p. 30; O’Neill, M. ‘ Actress helps win adoption issue’, The Sunday Telegraph Mar 30, 2008 p. 34

ABC Radio National Life Matters Richard Aedy 9.a.m., July 30, 2008: http://www.abc.net.au/rn/lifematters/stories/2008/2317716.htm ; The 7.30 Report ABC Reporter: Kirstin Murray March 13, 2008 http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2007/s2188906.htm; Connolly, E. ‘Our adoption laws an embarrassment’, The Sunday Telegraph Aug 5, 2008, p. 9, “The Federal Opposition said it would be proposing reforms to streamline and harmonise the process, to cut waiting lists.”;  Meet the Press. (2013, Nov 10). ‘National Adoption Awareness Week’, Channel 10, Features Pru Goward promoting Forced Adoption, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88aSEnID-Fg ;

[2] Gilbert, C.  (1968).  ‘These children need parents (But adoption’s a slow business)’ in Background The Sydney Morning Herald Feb 18, 1968: “500 unwanted babies all need homes”

[3] Deborra-lee Furness. (2013, Sept 13). Deborra-lee Furness: Fight the global orphan crisis’, CNN Global NewsView http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/16/opinion/international-adoption-deborra-lee-furness/

[4] Media Release. (2013, Nov 21). Landmark Child Protection Reforms to Improve the Lives of Vulnerable Children”.  http://prugoward.com.au/Media/MediaReleases/tabid/93/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/172/LANDMARK-CHILD-PROTECTION-REFORMS-TO-IMPROVE-THE-LIVES-OF-VULNERABLE-CHILDREN.aspx

[5] Sammut, J. (2013). ‘The politics of apologies: Easy moralism for past sins, but ignorance about the present’, (Mar 26).  http://www.cis.org.au/media-information/opinion-pieces/article/4751-the-politics-of-apologies-easy-moralism-for-past-sins-but-ignorance-about-the-present

[6] Sammut, J. (2012). ‘The Fraught Politics of Saying Sorry for Forced Adoption, Implications for Child Protection Policy in Australia’, Issue Analysis, March 19,  No. 138, Centre for Independent Studies http://www.cis.org.au/images/stories/issue-analysis/ia138.pdf ; Kate Murphy, Marian Quartly, Denise Cuthbert, (2009). ‘In the Best Interets of the Child” Mapping the (Re) Emergence of Pro-Adoption Politics in Contemporary Australia, Australian Journal of  Politics & History, 55(2), pp. 201-218, June.

[7] Sammut, J. (2013). ‘The politics of apologies: Easy moralism for past sins, but ignorance about the present’, Centre for Independent Studies, Mar 26.  http://www.cis.org.au/media-information/opinion-pieces/article/4751-the-politics-of-apologies-easy-moralism-for-past-sins-but-ignorance-about-the-present

[8] Adoptive Parents Ass. (1994, June).  Around Adoption, The Magazine of the Adoptive Parents Association of NSW (Incorporated),  p. 15.  “It is nearly impossible to adopt a child … Our Government gave us the single mothers’ pension and so took away the babies that could have been available for adoption.  Not all babies are better off with their birth mother – they’re better with an adoptive family which really wants them”.

[9] Peter Lloyd (2013, Dec 19) ‘New taskforce to make adoption easier’, ABC PM, http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2013/s3914933.htmhttp://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2013/s391493 Emma Griffiths. (2013, Dec 19). ‘Tony Abbott announces new measures to simplify adoption within a year’, ABC News, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-19/tony-abbott-vows-measures-easier-adoption/5167098 ; Abbott states: “There are too many children who have … no effective parents and they deserve a better life, and adoption is a way of giving it to them” …  “Abbott has set up a task force to reform federal, state and territory government practices to make domestic adoptions easier”. Here is an example of the Federal Government guiding the States and Territories on adoption legislation & policy supposedly outside Federal jurisdiction.

[10] Barnardos Australia Submission to Queensland Child Protection Inquiry September 2012, http://www.childprotectioninquiry.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/162384/Barnardos_Australia_Voigt_Louise.pdf

[11] Peter Lloyd (2013, Dec 19). ‘New taskforce to make adoption easier’, ABC PM, http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2013/s3914933.htmhttp://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2013/s391493 Emma Griffiths. (2013, Dec 19). ‘Tony Abbott announces new measures to simplify adoption within a year’, ABC News, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-12-19/tony-abbott-vows-measures-easier-adoption/5167098 ; Australian Christian Lobby, (2013, Nov 12). CEO of Barnardos Louise Voigt on the Political Spot about proposed changes to boost NSW adoptions’, http://www.acl.org.au/2013/11/ceo-of-barnardos-louise-voigt-on-the-political-spot-about-proposed-changes-to-boost-nsw-adoptions/

[12] Including depression, and if a person is distressed in any way and it is presumed their behaviour will impact on their parenting;  Woods, J. (2008). Report of the Special Commission of Inquiry into Child Protection Services in NSW Vol 1, State of NSW, p. 177  http://www.dpc.nsw.gov.au/publications/news/stories/?a=33796 ;  See NSW Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Regulation 2000 cl. 10; NSW Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998 s. 122; s. 121; s27(2); s 23 For the purposes of this part a child is “at risk of significant harm” if current concerns exist for the safety, welfare or well-being of the child because of the presence of any one or more of the following circumstances: (a) the child’s basic physical or psychological needs are not being met or are at risk of not being met; (d) the child or young person  is living in a household where there have been incidents of domestic violence; (e) a parent or other caregiver has behaved in such a way towards the child that the child suffered or IS AT RISK OF SUFFERING  serious psychological harm; (e) a parent or other caregiver has behaved in such a way towards the child that the child has suffered or is at risk of suffering serious psychological harm (f) the child was the subject of a pre-natal report under sec 25 and the birth mother of the child did not engage successfully with support services to eliminate, or  minimise to the lowest level reasonably practical, the risk factors that gave rise to the report (2) Any such circumstances may relate to a single act or omission or to a series of acts or omissions. Sect 25: Pre-natal reports; Sect 26: The report can be made anonymously.  http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/caypapa1998442/s38.html

[13] Vulnerable babies, children and young people at risk of harm: Best practice framework for acute health services, Melb: Victorian Government Dept of Human Services,  pp. 50-51 http://docs.health.vic.gov.au/docs/doc/A9B88A7B541AE7FCCA2579820012364D/$FILE/vulnerable_children.pdf ; Carmody, T. (2013). Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry: Taking Responsibility: A Roadmap for Queensland Child Protection, Queensland: Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry, pp. 37-38 http://www.childprotectioninquiry.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/175248/QCPCI_Discussion_paper.pdf

[14] Ainsworth, F. & Hansen, P. (2009). Babies for the Deserving: Developments in Foster Care and Adoption in one Australia State – Others to Follow?, Just Policy, No. 50 April 20. http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/commcontribformerforcedadoption/submissions

[15] Dept. of Health, Victoria. (2013). ‘Children at risk’, http://health.vic.gov.au/childrenatrisk/parents.htm ; New South Wales Department of Health. (2006). National Clinical Guidelines for Management of Drug Use During Pregnancy, birth and the early development years of the newborn, endorsed by the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy: NSW and SA Dept of Health’s Intergovernmental Committee on Drugs, pp. 10, 17. ; Victorian Gov. (2006). Vulnerable babies, children and young people at risk of harm: Best practice framework for acute health services, Melb: Victorian Government Dept of Human Services,  p. 15  http://docs.health.vic.gov.au/docs/doc/A9B88A7B541AE7FCCA2579820012364D/$FILE/vulnerable_children.pdf

[16] Hagar Cohen, ‘ Babies At Risk’, ABC RN, Background Briefinghttp://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/babies-at-risk/3117268#transcript

[17] NSW Premier Barry O’Farrell Media Release. Landmark Child Protection Reforms to Improve the Lives of Vulnerable Children, Thursday 21 November 2013,  http://www.nsw.gov.au/news/landmark-child-protection-reforms-improve-lives-vulnerable-children

[18] Tilbury, D. (2009). ‘A ‘Stock and Flow’ analysis of Australian Child Protection Data, Communities, Children and Families Australia, 4(2), pp. 9-17, at p. 10

[19] Arlington, K. (2008).  DOCS took kids by force. Daily Telegraph. Dec 26.

[20] Kirsty Needham, (2013, Nov 14). ‘History must not repeat in adoption laws’, http://www.smh.com.au/comment/history-must-not-repeat-in-adoption-laws-20131123-2y2fx.html  Karen Wills, who sits on the NSW Domestic and Family Violence Council stated that women are terrified that if they report they will have their children taken. She states that councillors will now have to advise women who ring for support that is now a real risk.

[21] Hagar Cohen, ‘ Babies At Risk’, ABC RN, Background Briefinghttp://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/babies-at-risk/3117268#transcript

[22] Wexler, R. (2002). ‘Take the Child and Run: Tales From the Age of ASFA’, New England Law Review, 36 (1), p. 132,  http://www.nesl.edu/userfiles/file/lawreview/vol36/1/06%20Richard%20Wexler.doc

[23] Houppert, K. (1999). Victimizing the Victims, Village Voice, June 15, at p. 41.

[24] ibid

[25] The Rules of Evidence do not apply in these matters: See Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998 (NSW) s 93 (3) & (4) –  Therefore the woman is presumed guilty based on the allegations of the child protection workers.  By the time the case goes to court the infant has already been placed with its foster parents so there is little chance it will be given back as it is presumed in “the child best interests” to remain because its attached to them. When Bronwyn Bishop was asked if a person with a drug dependency turned her life around could she get her baby back after it was forcibly taken Bishop replied: “No, not after adoption” See Bunce, J. (2007). ‘Adopt out’ the children of drug addicts, The Australian, August 27, http://www.lyinx.com.au/page.aspx?docid=28

[26] Another unintended consequence in the US System was that increased reporting led to increases in the abuse within the foster care system ‘Making Matters Worse’http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume10/j10_10_6.htm

[27] NSW Premier Barry O’Farrell Media Release. Landmark Child Protection Reforms to Improve the Lives of Vulnerable Children, Thursday 21 November 2013,  http://www.nsw.gov.au/news/landmark-child-protection-reforms-improve-lives-vulnerable-children

[28]Carmody, T. (2013). Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry: Taking Responsibility: A Roadmap for Queensland Child Protection, Queensland: Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry, p. 46 http://www.childprotectioninquiry.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/175248/QCPCI_Discussion_paper.pdf

[29] Hagar Cohen,  (2010, Mar 14). ‘ Babies At Risk’, ABC RN, Background Briefinghttp://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/babies-at-risk/3117268#transcript ; Legislative Council of South Australia, Select Committee on Families SA. (2009, Nov). Report of the Select Committee on Families SA, Presented to the Third Session, Fifty-First Parliament 2008-2009, http://www.bressington.net/Files/FamiliesSAReport.pdf

[31] Community Affairs Reference Committee. (2012). Senate Committee ReportCommonwealth Contribution to Former Forced Adoption Policies and Practices.  Canberra: Senate Community Affairs References Committee Secretariat http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/2010-13/comm_contrib_former_forced_adoption/report/index.htm Community Affairs References Committee. (2004). Forgotten Australians: A report on Australians who experiences institutional or out-of-home care as children, The Parliament of the Commonwealth, Canberra: Senate Community Affairs References Committee Secretariat, http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/senate_committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/2004-07/inst_care/report/index.htm

Community Affairs References Committee. (2001). Lost Innocents: Righting the Record – Report on child migration, The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra: Senate Community Affairs References Committee Secretariat. Retrieved 2013 Mar from http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/senate_committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/1999-02/child_migrat/report/index.htm

Joint Select Committee. (1999). Adoption and Related Services 1950-1998. Tasmania: Parliament of Tasmania.  Retrieved Aug 11, 2012 from http://www.parliament.tas.gov.au/Ctee/reports/adopt.pdf

New South Wales Parliament Legislative Council Standing Committee on Social Issues. (2000). Releasing the Past: adoption practices, 1950-1998: Final Report, Report 22, Parliamentary paper No. 600, Sydney, NSW: Standing Committee on Social Issues Retrieved Aug 11, 2012 http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/56E4E53DFA16A023CA256CFD002A63BC

[32] An overview of the now copious research of mental health damage to mothers, their taken children, the mother’s subsequent children and fathers and how it is lifelong and not only negatively affects them but their extended families and communities see: Cole, C. (2011). The Broken Bond: Stolen Babies Stolen Motherhood Viewed through a Trauma Perspective.  Supplementary Submission No. 223 to Senate Community Affairs References Committee Inquiry into the Commonwealth Contribution to Former Forced Adoption Policies and Practices http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/commcontribformerforcedadoption/submissions ;

Cole, C. (2013). Stolen Babies Broken Hearts: Forced Adoption in Australia 1881-1987, Unpublished Doctorate, School of Social Sciences and Psychology,  UWS, http://arrow.uws.edu.au:8080/vital/access/manager/Repository/uws:17555

[33] Gair, S. (2008). ‘The psychic disequilibrium of adoption: Stories exploring links between adoption and suicidal thoughts and actions’, Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 7(3)., http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/5880/   http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/news/exploring-links-between-past-adoptions-and-suicide/13426 ; McHutchison, J. (1986). Relinquishing A Child the Circumstances and Effects of Loss, Unpublished Master Thesis, UNSW;  Higgins: 2010, Impact of past adoption practices: Summary of key issues from Australian research, Final Report, A report to the Australian Government Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Australian Institute of Family Studies; Australian Institute of  Family Studies, (2011). Senate Community Affairs References Committee Inquiry into the Commonwealth Contribution to Former Forced Adoption Policies and Practices, Prepared by Dr. Daryl Higgins, authorised by Professor Alan Hayes, Director. ; Kenny, Higgins, Soloff & Sweid: 2012, Past adoption experiences: National Research Study on the Service Response to Past Adoption Practices: Final Report, Report No. 21, Australian Institute of Family Studies   http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/resreport21/ ;  Community Affairs References Committee. (2012). Former forced adoption policies and practices, Commonwealth Contribution to Former Forced Adoption Policies and Practices, Senate Committee Report.  http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate_Committees?url=clac_ctte/completed_inquiries/2010-13/comm_contrib_former_forced_adoption/report/index.htm; Cole, C. (2008). Releasing the Past: Mothers’ Stories of their Stolen Babies, Sydney: Sasko Valjanov;

Cole, C. A. (2009a). The thin end of the wedge: Are past draconian adoptive practices re-emerging in the 21st century? Public submission to the National Human Rights Consultation (PDF 96 KB). <www.humanrightsconsultation.gov.au/www/nhrcc/submissions.nsf/list/298F895A0A1C6D37CA2576240003405F/$file/Christine%20Cole_AGWW-7T29E8.pdf>.  ‘The Hidden Tragedy of the White Stolen Generation’, (2009).  Ceridwen Spark & Denise Cuthbert (Eds.) in Other People’s Children: Adoption in Australia, Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, pp. 95-126; Condon, J. (1986). ‘Psychological disability in women who relinquish a baby for adoption’, The Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 144.

[34] Wellisch, E. (1952).  ‘Children Without Genealogy: A problem of Adoption’, Mental Health, 13

Kenny, Higgins, Soloff & Sweid. (2012), Past adoption experiences: National Research Study on the Service Response to Past Adoption Practices: Final Report, Report No. 21, Australian Institute of Family Studies   http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/resreport21/   http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Community_Affairs/Completed_inquiries/2010-13/commcontribformerforcedadoption/submissions ; [34] Sinclair, Raven. 2007. .Identity lost and found: Lessons from the sixties scoop.. First Peoples Child and Family Review. 3.1 (2007): 65-82.http://www.fncfcs.com/pubs/vol3num1/Sinclair_pp65.pdf

 

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